Underserved markets

December 2018

M-KOPA Solar: Using Digital Disruption to Connect the World’s Poor

By Nader Tavassoli

Launched in East Africa, M-KOPA is an innovative pay-as-you-go solar system that provides reliable energy to low-income households. To serve these customers profitably, M-KOPA’s solution relies on digital innovation and the integrated adaptation of every…

March 2015

Aravind Eye Care System

By Kamalini Ramdas, Sarang Deo

This case relates the genesis and evolution of vision centres (VCs) for primary eye care at Aravind Eye Care System (AECS). AECS, based in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu, is the world’s largest…