Evolution of strategy

November 2023

Heineken’s International Expansion

Asserting his lifelong motto “I don’t sell beer, I sell warmth”, Alfred ‘Freddy’ Heineken passed away on 3 January 2002, aged 78. Known for his flamboyant lifestyle and fiery personality, Freddy was also the driving force in growing Heineken into an international brand. Heineken had the la...

November 2023

Royal Ahold: International growth and acquisitions

By Freek Vermeulen

On October 13 2004, the Securities and Exchange Commission filed fraud and other charges in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia against Royal Ahold and three former top executives, including CEO and Chairman Cees van der Hoeven, thus terminating the career of the once-power...